"Autobiographies of great nations are written in three manuscripts – a book of deeds, a book of words, and a book of art.
Of the three, I would choose the latter as truest testimony." - Sir Kenneth Smith, Great Civilisations

"I must write each day without fail, not so much for the success of the work, as in order not to get out of my routine." - Leo Tolstoy

I have never believed that one should wait until one is inspired because I think the pleasures of not writing are so
great that if you ever start indulging them you will never write again. - John Updike

"The life of every man is a diary in which he means to write one story, and writes another; and his humblest hour
is when he compares the volume as it is with what he vowed to make it." - J.M. Barrie, Peter Pan

Tuesday, November 3, 2020

Pooh Bear and Mental Health



Pooh woke up that morning, and, for reasons that he didn't entirely understand, couldn't stop the tears from coming. He sat there in bed, his little body shaking, and he cried, and cried, and cried.

Amidst his sobs, the phone rang.

It was Piglet.

"Oh Piglet," said Pooh, between sobs, in response to his friend's gentle enquiry as to how he was doing. "I just feel so Sad. So, so, Sad, almost like I might not ever be happy again. And I know that I shouldn't be feeling like this. I know there are so many people who have it worse off than me, and so I really have no right to be crying, with my lovely house, and my lovely garden, and the lovely woods all around me. But oh, Piglet: I am just SO Sad."

Piglet was silent for a while, as Pooh's ragged sobbing filled the space between them. Then, as the sobs turned to gasps, he said, kindly: "You know, it isn't a competition."

"What isn't a competition?" asked a confused sounding Pooh.

"Sadness. Fear. Grief," said Piglet. "It's a mistake we often make, all of us. To think that, because there are people who are worse off than us, that that somehow invalidates how we are feeling. But that simply isn't true. You have as much right to feel unhappy as the next person; and, Pooh - and this is the really important bit - you also have just as much right to get the help that you need."

"Help? What help?" asked Pooh. "I don't need help, Piglet.

"Do I?"

Pooh and Piglet talked for a long time, and Piglet suggested to Pooh some people that he might be able to call to talk to, because when you are feeling sad, one of the most important things is not to let all of the sad become trapped inside you, but instead to make sure that you have someone who can help you, who can talk through with you how the sad is making you feeling, and some of the things that might be able to be done to support you with that.

What's more, Piglet reminded Pooh that this support is there for absolutely everyone, that there isn't a minimum level of sad that you have to be feeling before you qualify to speak to someone.

Finally, Piglet asked Pooh to open his window and look up at the sky, and Pooh did so.

"You see that sky?" Piglet asked his friend. "Do you see the blues and the golds and that big fluffy cloud that looks like a sheep eating a carrot?"

Pooh looked, and he could indeed see the blues and the golds and the big fluffy cloud that looked like a sheep eating a carrot.

"You and I," continued Piglet, "we are both under that same sky. And so, whenever the sad comes, I want you to look up at that sky, and know that, however far apart we might be physically...we are also, at the same time, together. Perhaps, more together than we have ever been before."

"Do you think this will ever end?" asked Pooh in a small voice.

"This too shall pass," confirmed Piglet. "And I promise you, one day, you and I shall once again sit together, close enough to touch, sharing a little smackerel of something...underneath that blue gold sky."

We all need a piglet in our lives.

- Joanne Wellington






* * * * * * * * *


Mental health matters.

I really, really think the secret
to being loved is to love.

And the secret to being interesting
is to be interested.

And the secret to having a friend
is being a friend.


* * * * * * * * *



We all carry a little something...











* * * * * * * * *





 by Jacqueline, May 18, 2018

This was posted on Facebook as part of Mental Health Awareness week. I felt I wanted to share it to help eradicate the stigma which still surrounds mental health issues. - Jacqueline

“Piglet?” said Pooh.

“Yes Pooh?” said Piglet.

“Do you ever have days when everything feels… Not Very Okay At All? And sometimes you don’t even know why you feel Not Very Okay At All, you just know that you do.”

Piglet nodded his head sagely.

“Oh yes,” said Piglet. “I definitely have those days.” 

“Really?” said Pooh in surprise.

“I would never have thought that. You always seem so happy and like you have got everything in life all sorted out."

“Ah,” said Piglet. “Well here’s the thing. There are two things that you need to know, Pooh.

"The first thing is that even those pigs, and bears, and people, who seem to have got everything in life all sorted out… they probably haven’t.

"Actually, everyone has days when they feel Not Very Okay At All. Some people are just better at hiding it than others.

“And the second thing you need to know… is that it’s okay to feel Not Very Okay At All. It can be quite normal, in fact. And all you need to do, on those days when you feel Not Very Okay At All, is come and find me, and tell me. Don’t ever feel like you have to hide the fact you’re feeling Not Very Okay At All. Always come and tell me. Because I will always be there.”

- Jacqueline











* * * * * * * * *





Eeyore and the Damp and Dreary Day


It was a damp and dreary day

 and Pooh and Piglet were eager to get back to Piglet's house and warm their feet by the fire .

Nevertheless, the two friends trudged through the carpet of leaves  which had begun to cover the ground of the Hundred Acre Wood and decided first to check on Eeyore.

"Hello Eeyore!" said Pooh and Piglet when they came upon him.

"Hello Pooh and Piglet," said Eeyore, in a sad, sorrowful  kind of voice.

"Is everything okay, Eeyore?" asked Piglet.

"Oh," said Eeyore. "Well," said Eeyore. "No," said Eeyore .

"Oh Eeyore," said Pooh, looking at the miserable eyes of his friend. "Would you like a hug  ? It would make you feel so much better"

"Absolutely not," said Eeyore, taking a step backwards.

"No thank you very much. Physical contact is Very Much Not My Thing." 

"Then how about a different kind of hug  ," said Piglet.

"A different kind of hug  ?" said Eeyore, intrigued in spite of himself. "Whatever do you mean?"

"A hug , you know," continued Piglet, settling himself down on a pillow of leaves  on one side of Eeyore and encouraging Pooh, on the other side, to do the same;

"a hug  doesn't have to be about physically touching someone. A hug  can be a lovely cup of tea  someone has made you;

"or it can be a friend popping in just to see if you are okay; or it can be a silent wish sent heart  to heart ;

"or it can be sitting with your two friends, not really saying very much at all, counting the Autumn leaves  as they fall from the trees ."

"Oh," said Eeyore. "Oh," he said again. "I had no idea, that a hug  could be all of that".

He thought for a while, quite a long while in fact, and then said; “If a leaf  is at the top of the tree it will take ages to fall to the ground, won’t it?”.

“I hadn’t thought of that”, said Pooh. “I can imagine we could spend all day looking at leaves  falling”.

“Let’s do that”, said Piglet. For a long time there was silence as Pooh and Piglet and Eeyore sat together and counted the leaves  as they drifted down, swinging from side to side.

"I think," said Eeyore, after some reflection, "that this is the very nicest hug  I have ever had." 

We can not hug  at the minute but sometimes all it takes is to be kind we are all under one sky, it might mean the world  to someone. 


Eeyore - Depression
by Yana Walljasper
Oct 23, 2014

This is a video I made for my Mental Health in the Media class.
I don't own any of the video clips, all rights go to Disney.

Monday, October 26, 2020

R.E. Slater - Autumnal Awakening





Autumnal Awakening
by R.E. Slater


As I awake the changeling day
I hear but filling silence falling
In nearby stand of autumn wood
Preparing quietly its winter slumber
In Netherland dreams of renewal.

I am reminded these present trials
Which die awhile before awakening
Of hopes falling like rotting leaves
Lumped upon a browning grounds
Useful the sleeping insect and larvae.

Woods shorn their mighty colours
Awaiting its new day of rebirth
Sowing upon the cooling earth
Reminders its resting hallows
Merely grasped for rake or fire.

So is borne upon an autumn day
Troubled good for struggling hearts
Sowing warmths preparing slumber
To resurrect on a distant weather
There to grace a trodding path.

R.E. Slater
October 25, 2020

@copyright R.E. Slater Publications
all rights reserved






America the Beautiful - Poems & Pledges



America
by Herman Melville

I

Where the wings of a sunny Dome expand
I saw a Banner in gladsome air-
Starry, like Berenice's Hair-
Afloat in broadened bravery there;
With undulating long-drawn flow,
As rolled Brazilian billows go
Voluminously o'er the Line.
The Land reposed in peace below;
The children in their glee
Were folded to the exulting heart
Of young Maternity.

II

Later, and it streamed in fight
When tempest mingled with the fray,
And over the spear-point of the shaft
I saw the ambiguous lightning play.
Valor with Valor strove, and died:
Fierce was Despair, and cruel was Pride;
And the lorn Mother speechless stood,
Pale at the fury of her brood.

III

Yet later, and the silk did wind
Her fair cold for;
Little availed the shining shroud,
Though ruddy in hue, to cheer or warm
A watcher looked upon her low, and said-
She sleeps, but sleeps, she is not dead.
But in that sleep contortion showed
The terror of the vision there-
A silent vision unavowed,
Revealing earth's foundation bare,
And Gorgon in her hidden place.
It was a thing of fear to see
So foul a dream upon so fair a face,
And the dreamer lying in that starry shroud.

IV

But from the trance she sudden broke-
The trance, or death into promoted life;
At her feet a shivered yoke,
And in her aspect turned to heaven
No trace of passion or of strife-
A clear calm look. It spake of pain,
But such as purifies from stain-
Sharp pangs that never come again-
And triumph repressed by knowledge meet,
Power delicate, and hope grown wise,
And youth matured for age's seat-
Law on her brow and empire in her eyes.
So she, with graver air and lifted flag;
While the shadow, chased by light,
Fled along the far-brawn height,
And left her on the crag.





America The Beautiful
Our Pledge and Banner

by R.E.Slater

The pledges and anthems I grew up with included in my mind fair play, social equity, justice for all, and a mindset of serving humanity as guiding first principles.

We pledged to America to grow into and become these first principles not because we had already obtained these results but because we were maturing towards those immeasurable ideals.

That what Americans embraced positionally they would become practically by their ensuing, assuaging actions.

America to me was never about nationalism nor a confused or conscripted patriotism. Of unhallowed racism and derelict duty to humanity and nature.

America was about living up to its ideals through each of us reaching out to the other personally and together in kindred spirits of helps and aide.

My amazement came when finding such pledgers and banner-keepers paying lip-service to America's first principles.

Whose chosen silence and inactions darkened America's duty of doing what was right. Of speaking out for the good and beautiful.

This kind of America I cannot pledge to. Pledging commits one to action, not inaction. Of vouchsafing the rights, liberties, and properties of the unloved other.

Not to keeping the status quo but by uplifting it that it becomes all-inclusive. A solidarity of human spirit to human spirit bespeaking peace and unity.

And when we do not, to call out our fellow Americans to live up to its Bill of Rights and our living Constitution as dissenting peoples advocating for whom we must become. Nor for whom we must not become.

America is a nation united in all these things moral and right.

America's banners are lifted high because its people strive for love and unity at all times and in all weathers, fair or evil.

This is the America I believe in and wish to make happen with those of similar spirits. The America of the people, for the people, and by the people.

R.E. Slater
October 26, 2020




Let America Be America Again
by Langston Hughes

Let America be America again
Let it be the dream it used to be.
Let it be the pioneer on the plain
Seeking a home where he himself is free.

(America never was America to me.)

Let America be the dream the dreamers dreamed--
Let it be that great strong land of love
Where never kings connive nor tyrants scheme
That any man be crushed by one above.

(It never was America to me.)

O, let my land be a land where Liberty
Is crowned with no false patriotic wreath,
But opportunity is real, and life is free,
Equality is in the air we breathe.

(There's never been equality for me,
Nor freedom in this "homeland of the free.")

Say, who are you that mumbles in the dark?
And who are you that draws your veil across the stars?

I am the poor white, fooled and pushed apart,
I am the Negro bearing slavery's scars.
I am the red man driven from the land,
I am the immigrant clutching the hope I seek--
And finding only the same old stupid plan
Of dog eat dog, of mighty crush the weak.

I am the young man, full of strength and hope,
Tangled in that ancient endless chain
Of profit, power, gain, of grab the land!
Of grab the gold! Of grab the ways of satisfying need!
Of work the men! Of take the pay!
Of owning everything for one's own greed!

I am the farmer, bondsman to the soil.
I am the worker sold to the machine.
I am the Negro, servant to you all.
I am the people, humble, hungry, mean--
Hungry yet today despite the dream.
Beaten yet today--O, Pioneers!
I am the man who never got ahead,
The poorest worker bartered through the years.

Yet I'm the one who dreamt our basic dream
In the Old World while still a serf of kings,
Who dreamt a dream so strong, so brave, so true,
That even yet its mighty daring sings
In every brick and stone, in every furrow turned
That's made America the land it has become.
O, I'm the man who sailed those early seas
In search of what I meant to be my home--
For I'm the one who left dark Ireland's shore,
And Poland's plain, and England's grassy lea,
And torn from Black Africa's strand I came
To build a "homeland of the free."

The free?

Who said the free? Not me?
Surely not me? The millions on relief today?
The millions shot down when we strike?
The millions who have nothing for our pay?
For all the dreams we've dreamed
And all the songs we've sung
And all the hopes we've held
And all the flags we've hung,
The millions who have nothing for our pay--
Except the dream that's almost dead today.

O, let America be America again--
The land that never has been yet--
And yet must be--the land where every man is free.
The land that's mine--the poor man's, Indian's, Negro's, ME--
Who made America,
Whose sweat and blood, whose faith and pain,
Whose hand at the foundry, whose plow in the rain,
Must bring back our mighty dream again.

Sure, call me any ugly name you choose--
The steel of freedom does not stain.
From those who live like leeches on the people's lives,
We must take back our land again,
America!

O, yes,
I say it plain,
America never was America to me,
And yet I swear this oath--
America will be!

Out of the rack and ruin of our gangster death,
The rape and rot of graft, and stealth, and lies,
We, the people, must redeem
The land, the mines, the plants, the rivers.
The mountains and the endless plain--
All, all the stretch of these great green states--
And make America again!




I Hear America Singing
by Walt Whitman


I Hear America singing, the varied carols I hear;
Those of mechanics--each one singing his, as it should be, blithe and strong;
The carpenter singing his, as he measures his plank or beam,
The mason singing his, as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work;
The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat--the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck;
The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench--the hatter singing as he stands;
The wood-cutter's song--the ploughboy's, on his way in the morning, or at the noon intermission, or at sundown;
The delicious singing of the mother--or of the young wife at work--or of the girl sewing or washing--Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else;
The day what belongs to the day--At night, the party of young fellows, robust, friendly,
Singing, with open mouths, their strong melodious songs.






I Am The American Constitution
by Katherine Kay Graven
March 16, 2007


I am the American Constitution.
Do you know my name
There is not to be a substitution
I am not to be changed

I am the American Constitution
I do not waver in what I preach
For common men are my leaders
It is God’s wisdom that I speak

I am the American Constitution
For my people I am here to protect and serve
The ones who are weak among the government
But though me they can still can be heard

I am the American Constitution
I was blessed with a soul of my own
Was born from a bloody Revolution
Making my peoples demands known

I am the American Constitution
My life is ending my words are being ignored
There is a Fascist government revolution
Satan himself is knocking at my door

I am the American Constitution
And my name is being marred
In the grips of unlawful persecution
Because a government wants me disbarred

I am the American Constitution
My fathers spoke of being free
Children get to know my contributions
Your voice is the only thing protecting me.

If I am sent to my execution
Where will that lead my country’s soul
For I am the American Constitution
That keeps American’s Government under control.


~~ The US Constitution As a Poem  ~~

https://www.overthinkingit.com/2015/09/17/the-u-s-constitution-is-a-poem/




Bill of Rights
by Sue Landers
April 13, 2018


Bill — a document sealed — as in a sign or small picture — to lend authority, credence — to make official what are — rights — ruled — what is proper fair and fitting — what was heretofore implied or inspired — to enumerate, ratify — to make real — to make the abstract concrete — poetry, poems

We have rights — protections that must be protected — protection written into the body of a nation — shaping the shape of it:

  • Faith and speech
  • guns or grievance
  • no army in my house
  • no taking of my land
  • no searching no seizing
  • grand speedy and jury
  • nothing cruel or unusual and oh yes —
  • I do love peaceably assembling.
  • I do love petitioning the government for a redress of my grievances.
  • I do love my soldier free home.
  • And maybe I could love the security of a free state if all were truly free.
  • As I would love my government to be fair and predictable.
  • Because I believe, I do — I want to — to believe
  • in a government of the people,
  • and the unalienable rights of all the people
  • never to be surrendered,
  • always to be fought for,
  • or retrieved.

History of the Most Important

Documents of the United States


The American Bill of Rights

October 18, 2020

The Bill of Rights (1791)

Known as the Bill of Rights, the first 10 Amendments to the United States Constitution were officially ratified in 1791. The Bill of Rights offered American citizens undeniable rights, essential for maintaining a free country.

The liberties offered in the Constitution ensured Americans that the central government would not abuse its power through tyranny or unjust actions. The Bill of Rights also offered the ability to express opinions and thought freely without the fear of government persecution.

Written by James Madison, the first 10 Amendments in the United States Constitution were originally met with skepticism. Led by Alexander Hamilton, the anti-Federalist party believed that the inclusion of individual rights into the Constitution was redundant and frivolous.

The Bill of Rights was adopted 3 years from the original drafting of the United States Constitution. Considering the historical implications, the process to include the Bill of Rights into the Constitution was fairly quick. However, the influences upon which it was built stem back centuries prior.

After the United States won the Revolutionary War and subsequently earned its freedom, the adoption of a Constitution was necessary for establishment purposes. The Revolution was spawned through injustice enforced by the controlling British Government. American settlers grew embittered from constant taxes and wrongful convictions.

Although the Bill of Rights was created to free Americans from a powerful central government, its influences, ironically, stem from British doctrines and literature. The following are three substantial precursors which influenced the adoption of the Bill of Rights into the United States Constitution:

The Magna Carta (1215)

In 1215, tired of immoral taxing and arbitrary actions committed by the King, a group of English noblemen forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. The legendary doctrine guaranteed common citizens such fundamental rights as the government must be fair and reasonable with their actions; individuals are guaranteed a trial by jury and due process of law.

The basic rights offered in the Magna Carta originally were awarded solely to noblemen. However, the rights were eventually extended to all people of society. The Magna Carta diminished a Monarch’s absolute power and enabled all citizens basic rights which impede tyrannous actions.

The Magna Carta is still recognized as an initial breakthrough for common citizens in regard to limiting governmental powers. Like all civil codes, the United States Constitution used the Magna Carta as a foundation upon which to build.

Petition of Right (1628)

Although the Magna Carta officially limited the powers of the Monarchy, it was often by the King and his unjust policies. As citizens grew furious over the Monarchy, the Parliament, or the English legislature grew in influence. Parliament eventually refused the approval of more taxes issued by King Charles I and forced him to sign the Petition of Right which prohibited the government from unlawfully arresting people and housing troops in private homes without consent from the owner. This petition clearly influenced the Third Amendment (prohibited soldiers from quartering on an individual’s private property) and the Fifth Amendment to the United States constitution.

British Bill of Rights (1689)

This document guaranteed all British subjects the right to bear arms and petition the King. This British version of the Bill of Rights also protected citizens from excessive bails, fines, and cruel and unusual punishment. The British version protected far fewer rights than the American Bill of Rights. However, the United States Constitution clearly adopted provisions (protections against excessive fines, punishments, and bails) found in the 8th Amendment, as well as a direct adoption of the 2nd Amendment (right to bear arms.)

Amendments and provisions of the Bill of Rights were undoubtedly adopted through British doctrine. However, a slew of domestic individual liberties existed before the ratification of the United States Constitution. Before the creation of the English Bill of Rights, many colonies recognized individual liberties through their own constitutions. For instance, in 1636, Rhode Island established itself as the first colony to recognize freedom of consciousness. In 1641, Massachusetts created the Massachusetts Body of Liberties which detailed a list of protected rights for the individual colonist. In 1649, Maryland extended the right to practice any religion.

Perhaps the greatest influence for the creation of the Bill of Rights can be found in The Virginia Declaration of Rights. Created by the author of the Bill of Rights himself, James Madison, the Virginia Declaration of Rights was published on June 12th, 1776. The Virginia Declaration offered 16 individual rights to its citizens, many of which were repeated in the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution.



BILL OF RIGHTS

July 6, 2018

The Bill of Rights- our First Ten Amendments

They ensure our Rights and Freedom

Limiting the Control of our Government

Giving us Powers when we most need them

 

The First Amendment gives our rights

To Religion, Speech, and Press

Congress has no Right to Interfere

With what we want to Express

 

The Second Amendment Gives us our Guns

Our right to Keep and Bear Arms

It gives us the Protection that we Need

To Stay Away from Harm

 

The Third Amendment Keeps out the Soldiers

Out of our Homes they go

We no Longer have to Quarter our Enemies

We have the Right to say, “No”

 

The Fourth Amendment Protects us from the Unreasonable

Searching and Seizing of our Property

No more Issuing of Warrants without Reason

Or Just for Mere Curiosity

 

The Fifth Amendment Gives us Due Process of Law,

Freedom from Double Jeopardy, and Self-Incrimination

No Being Held for Crime Without Evidence

And, in court, no Self-Condemnation

 

The Bill of Rights- our First Ten Amendments

The key to America’s prosperity

Many Thanks to James Madison

You have left an unforgettable legacy




United States Bill of Rights


The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in earlier documents, especially the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), as well as the Northwest Ordinance (1787), the English Bill of Rights (1689), and the Magna Carta (1215).

Due largely to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the Constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and then crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, and submitted them to the states for ratification. Contrary to Madison's proposal that the proposed amendments be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution (at the relevant articles and sections of the document), they were proposed as supplemental additions (codicils) to it. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, and became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is still pending before the states.

Although Madison's proposed amendments included a provision to extend the protection of some of the Bill of Rights to the states, the amendments that were finally submitted for ratification applied only to the federal government. The door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments. The process is known as incorporation.

There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.


~  Go to Wikipedia article for more detailed explanation of each right  ~


Approval of the Bill of Rights in Congress and the States[68]
Seventeen Articles
Approved by the House
August 24, 1789
Twelve Articles
Approved by the Senate
September 9, 1789
Twelve Articles
Approved by Congress
September 25, 1789
Ratification
Status
First Article:
After the first enumeration, required by the first Article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.
First Article:
After the first enumeration, required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred; to which number one Representative shall be added for every subsequent increase of forty thousand, until the Representatives shall amount to two hundred, to which number one Representative shall be added for every subsequent increase of sixty thousand persons.
First Article:
After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.
Pending:
Congressional Apportionment Amendment
Second Article:
No law varying the compensation to the members of Congress, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Second Article:
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Second Article:
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Later ratified:
May 5, 1992
Twenty-seventh Amendment
Third Article:
Congress shall make no law establishing religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, nor shall the rights of Conscience be infringed.
Third Article:
Congress shall make no law establishing articles of faith, or a mode of worship, or prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition to the government for a redress of grievances.
Third Article:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
First Amendment
Fourth Article:
The Freedom of Speech, and of the Press, and the right of the People peaceably to assemble, and consult for their common good, and to apply to the Government for a redress of grievances, shall not be infringed.
(see Third Article above)
Fifth Article:
A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the People, being the best security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed, but no one religiously scrupulous of bearing arms, shall be compelled to render military service in person.
Fourth Article:
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
Fourth Article:
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Second Amendment
Sixth Article:
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Fifth Article:
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Fifth Article:
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Third Amendment
Seventh Article:
The right of the People to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Sixth Article:
The right of the People to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Sixth Article:
The right of the People to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Fourth Amendment
Eighth Article:
No person shall be subject, except in case of impeachment, to more than one trial, or one punishment for the same offense, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
Seventh Article:
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case, to be a witnesses against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
Seventh Article:
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Fifth Amendment
Ninth Article:
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
Eighth Article:
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favour, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
Eighth Article:
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Sixth Amendment
Tenth Article:
The trial of all crimes (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of War or public danger) shall be by an Impartial Jury of the Vicinage, with the requisite of unanimity for conviction, the right of challenge, and other accostomed [sic] requisites; and no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherways [sic] infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment by a Grand Jury; but if a crime be committed in a place in the possession of an enemy, or in which an insurrection may prevail, the indictment and trial may by law be authorised in some other place within the same State.
(see Seventh Article above)
Eleventh Article:
No appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, shall be allowed, where the value in controversy shall not amount to one thousand dollars, nor shall any fact, triable by a Jury according to the course of the common law, be otherwise re-examinable, than according to the rules of common law.
Ninth Article:
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by Jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by a Jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Ninth Article:
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by Jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by a Jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Seventh Amendment
Twelfth Article:
In suits at common law, the right of trial by Jury shall be preserved.
(see Ninth Article above)
Thirteenth Article:
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Tenth Article:
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Tenth Article:
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Eighth Amendment
Fourteenth Article:
No State shall infringe the right of trial by Jury in criminal cases, nor the rights of conscience, nor the freedom of speech, or of the press.
Fifteenth Article:
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Eleventh Article:
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Eleventh Article:
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Ninth Amendment
Sixteenth Article:
The powers delegated by the Constitution to the government of the United States, shall be exercised as therein appropriated, so that the Legislative shall never exercise the powers vested in the Executive or Judicial; nor the Executive the powers vested in the Legislative or Judicial; nor the Judicial the powers vested in the Legislative or Executive.
Seventeenth Article:
The powers not delegated by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it, to the States, are reserved to the States respectively.
Twelfth Article:
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Twelfth Article:
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Ratified:
December 15, 1791
Tenth Amendment

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